[193] The only Jewish synagogue in the country is located in Nairobi. [212] There are very wide regional disparities: for example, Nairobi had the highest level of literacy at 87.1 per cent, compared to North Eastern Province, the lowest, at 8.0 per cent. [52] By the 1950s, there were 80,000 white settlers living in Kenya .[56]. However, this party was plagued with disagreements. Note: External links will open in a new browser window. The annual animal migration occurs between June and September, with millions of animals taking part, attracting valuable foreign tourism. [167], In 2007, the Kenyan government unveiled Vision 2030, an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the Asian Economic Tigers by the year 2030. Swahili, a Bantu language with Arabic, Persian, and other Middle-Eastern and South Asian loanwords, later developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples. The shantytown is believed to house between 170,000[179] and 1 million people. The United Kingdom ceded sovereignty over the Colony of Kenya. Kenya itself was the site of fighting between Allied forces and Italian troops in 1940–41, when Italian forces invaded. The Carrier Corps was formed and ultimately mobilised over 400,000 Africans, contributing to their long-term politicisation. [190] There are smaller conservative Reformed churches, the Africa Evangelical Presbyterian Church,[191] the Independent Presbyterian Church in Kenya, and the Reformed Church of East Africa. [110], Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Islam is the second largest religion, comprising 10.9% of the population. The service industry is also a major economic driver, particularly tourism. In December 2002, Kenya held democratic and open elections, which were judged free and fair by most international observers. Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product (GDP) after the service sector. 28—Human dignity. The dormant volcano is located in Tanzania. [79] Following skirmishes in the aftermath of the elections, 5,000 people were killed and a further 75,000 others displaced from their homes. The most important of these was the Swynnerton Plan, which was used to both reward loyalists and punish Mau Mau. [2], Kenya's various ethnic groups typically speak their mother tongues within their own communities. There has been growing concern, especially during former president Daniel arap Moi's tenure, that the executive was increasingly meddling with the affairs of the judiciary. The colonial history of Kenya dates from the establishment of a German protectorate over the Sultan of Zanzibar's coastal possessions in 1885, followed by the arrival of the Imperial British East Africa Company in 1888. [103], Kenya has considerable land area devoted to wildlife habitats, including the Masai Mara, where blue wildebeest and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. The government of the Republic of Kenya has fully automated the issuance of visa with effect from January 1, 2021. In 2005, agriculture, including forestry and fishing, accounted for 24% of GDP, as well as for 18% of wage employment and 50% of revenue from exports. Kenya's capital and largest city is Nairobi, while its oldest city and first capital is the coastal city of Mombasa. Additionally, a distinct local dialect, Kenyan English, is used by some communities and individuals in the country, and contains features unique to it that were derived from local Bantu languages such as Kiswahili and Kikuyu. Kenya has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.555 (medium), ranked 145 out of 186 in the world. Wajir and Malindi were bombed as well. Kenya's climate varies from tropical along the coast to temperate inland to arid in the north and northeast parts of the country. The country has a multi-party political system whose hallmark is parliamentary democracy. Kenya's best-known athletes include the four-time women's Boston Marathon winner and two-time world champion Catherine Ndereba, 800m world record holder David Rudisha, former marathon world record-holder Paul Tergat, and John Ngugi. Kenya ranks poorly on the Fragile States Index at number 25 out of 178 countries, ranked in 2019, and is placed in the ALERT category. The Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS), formerly the Joint Admissions Board (JAB), is responsible for selecting students joining the public universities. [18] Africa is Kenya's largest export market, followed by the European Union. Many larger towns consist of several locations. [25] An 1882 map drawn by Joseph Thompsons, a Scottish geologist and naturalist, indicated Mt. [171] The causes of child labour include poverty, the lack of access to education, and weak government institutions. The armed forces are regularly deployed in peacekeeping missions around the world. The Kenya Defence Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of Kenya. (1982). [217] Decisions by the Kenyan government to tax athletes' earnings may also be a motivating factor. P. 762, HC Deb 22 November 1963 vol 684 cc1329-400 wherein the UK Under-Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations and for the Colonies stated: "An agreement was then signed on the 8th October 1963, providing that on the date when Kenya became independent the territories comprising the Kenya Coastal Strip would become part of Kenya proper.". [122] In July 2015, Obama visited Kenya, the first American president to visit the country while in office. Eligibility criteria: the general criteria might include gender as in the case of special women's loans; being at least 18 years old; owning a valid Kenyan ID; having a business; demonstrating the ability to repay the loan; and being a customer of the institution. [57], From October 1952 to December 1959, Kenya was in a state of emergency arising from the Mau Mau rebellion against British rule. [86], Moi's plan to be replaced by Uhuru Kenyatta failed, and Mwai Kibaki, running for the opposition coalition "National Rainbow Coalition" (NARC), was elected president. Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o is one of the best known writers in Kenya. [204] Maternal mortality is high, partly because of female genital mutilation,[143] with about 27% of women having undergone it. At 580,367 square kilometres (224,081 sq mi), Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by total area. [43][44] Since the 10th century, rulers of Kilwa would go on to build elaborate coral mosques and introduce copper coinage.[45]. [154] To speed their export, Nairobi airport has a terminal dedicated to the transport of flowers and vegetables.[154]. [182][183], According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), In 2019, Kenya had a total population of 47,564,296 inhabitants. Jomo Kenyatta University of The first direct elections for native Kenyans to the Legislative Council took place in 1957. On the heels of the Garissa Massacre of 1980, Kenyan troops committed the Wagalla massacre in 1984 against thousands of civilians in Wajir County. Tourism in Kenya is the second-largest source of foreign exchange revenue following agriculture. 38.5 percent of the Kenyan adult population is illiterate. Malindi has traditionally been a friendly port city for foreign powers. The numbers are estimated to be around 60,287 people or 0.13% of the population.[2]. The current constitution was adopted in 2010 to replace the 1963 independence constitution. (eds. [171] In 2006, UNICEF estimated that up to 30% of girls in the coastal areas of Malindi, Mombasa, Kilifi, and Diani were subject to prostitution. Imperial rivalry was prevented when Germany handed its coastal holdings to Britain in 1890. [53], While building the railway through Tsavo, a number of the Indian railway workers and local African labourers were attacked by two lions known as the Tsavo maneaters. The president, who is the head of state and head of government, is popularly elected for a five-year term and is eligible for a second term. These communities formed the earliest city-states in the region, which were collectively known as Azania. Parliament of Kenya seen from the Kenyatta International Conference Centre tower. At its height, its authority stretched over the entire length of the Swahili Coast, including Kenya. [93], In 2013, Kenya held its first general elections after the new constitution had been passed. [83][85] Following this win, Moi was constitutionally barred from vying for another presidential term. There are 47 Assembly seats that are reserved for women, and 12 seats are held by me… Kenya's largest National Park is Tsavo, which is in fact made up of two Parks-Tsavo East and Tsavo West. [186] It has been developing since colonisation and also contains certain elements of American English. The deal allowed for China's state-controlled offshore oil and gas company, CNOOC, to prospect for oil in Kenya, which is just beginning to drill its first exploratory wells on the borders of Sudan and the disputed area of North Eastern Province, on the border with Somalia and in coastal waters. A small portion of the population relies on food aid. [231] There are also many fish-and-chips shops. Other attractions include the wildebeest migration at the Masaai Mara, which is considered to be the 7th wonder of the world; historical mosques, and colonial-era forts at Mombasa, Malindi, and Lamu; renowned scenery such as the white-capped Mount Kenya and the Great Rift Valley; tea plantations at Kericho; coffee plantations at Thika; a splendid view of Mount Kilimanjaro across the border into Tanzania;[149] and the beaches along the Swahili Coast, in the Indian Ocean. To stop the death and displacement of people, Kibaki and Odinga agreed to work together, with the latter taking the position of a prime minister. Kenya has no single prominent culture that identifies it. The first shipment was expected to earn Kenya about KSh15–20 billion in earnings. [20] The mountain's name was accepted, pars pro toto, as the name of the country. In the ensuing violence, 1,500 people were killed and another 600,000 were internally displaced, making it the worst post-election violence in Kenya. The Nandi were the first ethnic group to be put in a native reserve to stop them from disrupting the building of the railway. There are about 3,000 smallholder irrigation schemes covering a total area of 47,000 ha. Privatisation of state corporations like the defunct Kenya Post and Telecommunications Company, which resulted in East Africa's most profitable company—Safaricom, has led to their revival because of massive private investment. Exactly 12 months later on 12 December 1964, Kenya became a republic under the name "Republic of Kenya". [185], British English is primarily used in Kenya. The Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) is ranked 4th in Africa in terms of market capitalisation. Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. Kenya has close ties with its fellow Swahili-speaking neighbours in the African Great Lakes region. Kenya currently imports all crude petroleum requirements. Kenya also has a cement production industry. No. The country is known chiefly for its dominance in middle-distance and long-distance athletics, having consistently produced Olympic and Commonwealth Games champions in various distance events, especially in 800 m, 1,500 m, 3,000 m steeplechase, 5,000 m, 10,000 m, and the marathon. However, English, Kiswahili, and mathematics are compulsory subjects. [27][28][29], The first inhabitants of present-day Kenya were hunter-gatherer groups, akin to the modern Khoisan speakers. Moi retained the presidency and George Saitoti became the vice-president. The country has no strategic reserves and relies solely on oil marketers' 21-day oil reserves required under industry regulations. Large-scale private commercial farms cover 45,000 hectares, accounting for 40% of irrigated land. [36] Bantu groups in Kenya include the Kikuyu, Luhya, Kamba, Kisii, Meru, Kuria, Aembu, Ambeere, Wadawida-Watuweta, Wapokomo, and Mijikenda, among others. "Alarmingly, the Claimant Kenyatta and his family were tied up with this corruption as they enriched themselves through the mass purchase of property after 1963. Prominent local gospel musicians include the Kenyan Boys Choir. [52], In 1920, the East Africa Protectorate was turned into a colony and renamed Kenya after its highest mountain. Recent findings near Lake Turkana indicate that hominids such as Homo habilis (1.8 to 2.5 million years ago) and Homo erectus (1.9 million to 350,000 years ago) are possible direct ancestors of modern Homo sapiens, and lived in Kenya in the Pleistocene epoch. His family used his presidential position to circumvent legal or administrative obstacles to acquiring property. Article 5: The Territory Kenya consists of the territory and territorial waters comprising Kenya on the effective date, and any additional territory and territorial waters as defined by an Act of Parliament.